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  Ketamine Treatment and the Emergence of a New Era in Psychopharmacology By Tracey A. Reger   A Picture of Depression           “Depression affects an estimated 8% of persons in the United States and accounts for more than $210 billion in health care costs annually.” (Maurer, et al. 2018). Developed in 2005, psychologists created the PHQ-9 - a nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. This is a commonly used measurement tool to assess the presence and severity of depression in individuals. It consists of 9 simple, Likert scale questions in which the patient responds in levels of agreement between “0” (not at all) to “3” (nearly every day). For example, one question states, “Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless.” When a respondent answers highly affirmative to this statement, then this may indicate they are experiencing a symptom of depression at that time. The PHQ-9 is both a valid and reliable measurement of the presence of depression (Bo, et al., 2020). While this measurement tool a